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By Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)

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Because the saturation vapour pressure for ice is lower than that for a water surface, there would be preferential deposition of moisture on the ice crystals, causing them to grow sufficiently for snowflakes or raindrops to result. bergschrund. A deep narrow chasm frequently found in *cirques in which the upper part of the *cirque glacier has become separated from the rock headwall. They were formerly believed to be the most favourable sites for *freezethaw activity, which causes headwall retreat.

Beach ridge. An upstanding linear accumulation found on shingle beaches (those developed in sand are known as *berms). Whenever *constructive waves are active on a shingle beach, a small ridge will be produced at the limit of *swash for each high tide. As maximum tide level falls from spring to neap level, a series of ridges will be produced; these will be destroyed again on tidal rise to spring level, when just one ridge remains at high-water spring level. Much larger shingle ridges can be produced in connection with severe storms.

Bronzite. An orthorhombic *pyroxene. bronzitite. A monomineralic ultramafic rock consisting wholly of bronzite. brookite. A brown to black orthorhombic polymorph of Ti02 found in hydrothermal vein deposits. See also anatase, rutile. brown calcareous soils. Calcimorphic soils, typically found in the humid temperate regions of Europe and America under base-rich vegetation. Soil development is more advanced than in a rendzina, producing a soil with an A (B) C system of horizons. The soil is deeper, though rarely more than 70 em, owing to its development over a parent material with a greater insoluble residue.

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