By Andreas Faludi (Eds.)
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Extra resources for A Reader in Planning Theory
A Choice Theory of Planning 39 23. RIESMAN, DAVID, "Some observations on community plans and Utopia", TheYale Law Journal, Vol. LVII (December 1947), pp. , 1954. 24. SCHOEFFLER, SIDNEY, "Toward a general definition of rational action", Kyklos, Vol. VII, No. 3 (1954), pp. 245-73; reprinted in The Failure of Economics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1955: Appendix A. 25. , "The slum : Its nature, use and users", Journal of the American Institute of Planners, Vol. XXV, No. 1 (February 1959), pp.
Criteria are employed for choosing the best means to achieve stated ends. Only where criteria are stated in objective form can alternative means be reliably compared, with assurance that the means selected are directed toward the same goals. We have suggested that value formulation yields alternative sets of goals. This requirement is supported by the following reasoning. We plan in a world of limited knowledge, a world in which facts are probabilistic and values debatable. 's activity should be maintained at its current level, or at its current level relative to a certain region as a whole ?
This basis can be provided only by the values of the clients. Our contention rests on the thesis that goals are value statements, that value statements are not objectively verifiable, and, therefore, that the planner, by himself, cannot reasonably accept or reject goals for the public. This is crucial: we maintain that neither the planner's technical competence nor his wisdom entitles him to ascribe or dictate values to his immediate or ultimate clients. This view is in keeping with the democratic prescriptive that public decision-making and action should reflect the will of the client ; a concept which rejects the notion that planners or other technicians are 17 endowed with the ability to divine either the client's will or a public will.
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