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By Orlando Fals-Borda, Mohammad Anisur Rahman

Motion and information attracts on 20 years of expertise with the concepts and philosophy of Participatory Action-Research (PAR). PAR is an cutting edge method of financial and social swap, which matches past traditional institutional limitations in improvement by means of actively related to the folks in producing wisdom approximately their very own and the way it may be replaced. PAR calls for a powerful dedication by way of partaking social scientists to deprofessionalize their services and proportion it with the folk, whereas spotting that the groups without delay concerned have the serious voice in picking the path and objectives of switch as matters instead of items. PAR has its origins within the paintings of 3rd international social scientists greater than 3 a long time in the past as they introduced new how you can empower the oppressed via aiding them to obtain trustworthy wisdom on which to build countervailing energy. It has given that unfold during the international, as mirrored during this ebook with contributions from Asia, Africa Latin the US and North the US within the type of case experiences of exact event with the PAR process. PAR isn't really static and stuck yet dynamic and enduring, because the case reports and the theoretical chapters that precede and stick to the case experiences amply show.

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Finally, in some communities people noted that the bills were higher in June and December when the company had to pay employee benefits. Individual complaints began to proliferate. They were communicated to a company official based in the area, who took charge of passing them on to the main office in the departmental capital, Popayan. In some isolated cases the claims were accepted, but in most cases the company simply accumulated the debt when it was not paid, threatened to cut off service and charged interest on the amount each user accumulated.

We saw it also as a part of social activism with an ideological and spiritual commitment to promote people's (collective) praxis. Of course, this also turned out to be that of the activists (PAR researchers) at the same time, since the life of everybody is-formally or informally-some kind of praxis. But the promotion of people's collectives and their systematic praxis became, and has 26 Action and Knowledge continued to be, a primary objective of PAR. Translation of such ideas into practice-and vice-versa, sometimes with divergent views-became the task of several colleagues in many parts of the world.

Today PAR practitioners and many others are seeing the need to reverse this tide and to give civil society another opportunity again-a chance to recharge and exercise its diffused strength. This is people's countervailing power, an effort from the bottom up and from the Periphery to the centers, that would halt the unconditional feeding of the derivative power of the Prince (witness what happened recently with dramatic results in Eastern Europe, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Haiti and the Philippines).

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