Download Advances in Virus Research by Kenneth M. Smith and Max A. Lauffer (Eds.) PDF

By Kenneth M. Smith and Max A. Lauffer (Eds.)

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Uncertainty presents itself in deciding whether the particles which induce sterile lesions are mutant or normal particles because these particles cannot be further classified, Two reports emphasize that it is highly likely, however, that the sterile lesions represent mutant particles. Veldce and Fraenkel-Conrat ( 1962) found that many nitrous acid-induced mutants have very low productivity in the sense that lesion transfer to another local lesion host results in the induction of very few lesions, whereas a lesion induced by the parent strain yields many lesions upon such transfer.

The 12 mutants that these authors isolated were selected because they induced smaller lesions on Xanthi than did the parent strain. One of the mutants induced necrotic local lesions on tobacco and on all other hosts that were tested except tomato, which was completely resistant to this isolate. D. Direction #of Induced Mutation The material in the preceding section suggests that nitrous acid may alter certain phenotype characters of the virus unidirectionally. This notion is supported by a study of the lesion size character.

During nitrous acid treatment the nucleic acid residue, adenine, is converted to hypoxanthine, guanine is converted to xanthine, and cytosine is converted to iiracil. The purines, adenine and guanine, arc converted to bases which are not found in TMV RNA, whereas the pyrimidine, cytosine, is converted to the fourth naturally occiirring base, uracil. The purines, adenine and guanine, were found to react about 50% faster than the pyrimidine, cytosinc. ecause the loss of the reacting residues could be almost completely accounted for by the appcarancc of the deaminated residues, Schuster and Schramm concluded that very little in the way of side reaction was occurring.

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