By Hywel Williams
The 500 years that separate the mid-tenth century from the mid-15th century represent a serious and formative interval within the heritage of Europe. This used to be the age of the approach of felony and army legal responsibility often called 'feudalism', and of the start and consolidation of strong kingdoms in England, France and Spain; it was once an period of urbanization and the growth of exchange, of the construction of the nice Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals, of courtly romance and the paintings of the troubadour, and of the founding of celebrated seats of studying in Paris, Oxford and Bologna. however it used to be additionally an epoch characterized through brutal army experience within the launching of armed pilgrimages to free up Jerusalem from Muslim keep watch over, of the brutal dynastic clash of the Hundred Years' struggle and of the devastating pandemic of the Black dying. In a series of scholarly yet obtainable articles - followed by means of an array of gorgeous and actual photos of the period, plus timelines, maps, boxed good points and reveal costs - uncommon historian Hywel Williams sheds revelatory mild on each element of a wealthy and complicated interval of eu heritage. Ottonians and Salians; upward push of the Capetians; Normans in England; beginning of the city-states; The Normans in Sicily; the 1st campaign; The Investiture contest; The Hohenstaufen; The Angevin Empire; 12th-century Renaissance; Triumph of the Capetians; The 3rd campaign; The Albigensian campaign; the respect of Islamic Spain; the dominion of Naples; The Hundred Years conflict I; The Hundred Years warfare II; Avignon and the Schism; The Golden Age of Florence; The Reconquista; Popes, Saints and Heretics; Medieval society; Medieval tradition; Medieval battle.
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Additional info for Age of Chivalry: The Story of Medieval Europe, 950 to 1450
It was the prelude to a series of campaigns of subjugation. In 1067 rebels in Kent attacked Dover Castle and a revolt spread in West Mercia. In 1068 William had to negotiate the surrender of Exeter, and there were further revolts both in Mercia and in Northumbria. Harold’s sons were meanwhile raiding the West Country from their new bases in Ireland, and in 1069 a rebellion spread in Northumbria after the massacre of several hundred Norman soldiers garrisoned at Durham. William defeated the northern rebels in battle near York before pursuing the remnants into the city, many of whose inhabitants were then massacred.
The style of Ottonian manuscripts built on the earlier Carolingian renaissance, an artistic and literary movement which owed its origins to Charlemagne’s patronage. Ottonian art nevertheless contained its own distinctive motifs, often reflecting Byzantine influences. Itinerancy was an integral part of Ottonian government, and the rulers had no fixed capital. Their power was exercised instead at a number of royal residences, episcopal cities and religious communities, and the journeys they made between these centers were public demonstrations of regal authority.
MEMORIALIZING EDWARD THE CONFESSOR The development of Edward the Confessor’s posthumous reputation shows how subsequent royal regimes tried to assimilate the Anglo-Saxon past and sought to ensure its continuity with their own authority. 1067 completed a Life of King Edward, commissioned by his widow Edith. The second part of that work describes events that demonstrate the king’s holiness and his miracle-inducing prowess. It was this section that was then worked up by Osbert de Clare, a Benedictine monk at Westminster Abbey, in his more explicitly hagiographical Life of Edward, which was finished by the late 1130s.
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