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By Joseph F. Albright

George Washington Univ. tuition of medication, Washington, D.C. Examines the key beneficial properties and services of the immune process probably to be altered by way of the getting older method. experiences the slow breakdown of the resistance to an infection within the elderly and discusses lifespan extension and dietary hold up of immunosenescence. DNLM: Immunity--Aged.

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Extra resources for Aging, Immunity, and Infection

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Some of these efflux pumps are drug-specific such as Tet B in enteric bacteria and H. influenzae; others act in a broad, “multidrug” pattern. Tet B is plasmid encoded, although chromosomally mediated tetracycline resistance occurs in some bacteria such as Proteus. Tetracycline resistance conveyed by plasmids is situated near insertion sites and as a consequence those plasmids rather readily acquire other genetic information, which results in broadening the specificity of the resistance. It is likely that the widespread use of tetracyclines in animal feed is responsible, in part, for the existence in many regions of the world of resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Immune defense against L. monocytogenes is cell mediated and involves both activated phagocytic cells, especially IFN-γactivated macrophages, and cytotoxic T cells (see Chapters 3 and 4). Foci of infection may be seen in various organs, such as the liver and spleen where they appear as granulomas. One of the early reports that aged animals are more susceptible to infections than young adults, was a study of L. monocytogenes in mice (22). When mice were inoculated intravenously with a moderate number of L.

36 Aging, Immunity, and Infection Biofilms and Quorum Sensing Individual bacteria that lodge in alveoli or attach to the epithelium of the intestine or urinary bladder are in a precarious situation. The hostility of the environment makes it unlikely they will survive for long. Therefore, in order to outmaneuver host defenses, the bacteria replicate rapidly and form microcolonies. ” Only in the last decade has a clear understanding of the mechanisms and significance of biofilm formation begun to emerge (59).

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