By G. Grabherr, L. Nagy, D. B. A. Thompson (auth.), Dr. Laszlo Nagy, Prof. Dr. Georg Grabherr, Prof. Dr. Christian Körner, Prof. Dr. Desmond B. A. Thompson (eds.)
The United countries convention at the atmosphere and improvement (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, spawned a mess of professional grammes geared toward assessing, coping with and preserving the earth's organic variety. One vital factor addressed on the convention used to be the mountain surroundings. a particular function of excessive mountains is the so-called alpine sector, i. e. the treeless areas on the uppermost reaches. although overlaying just a very small percentage of the land floor, the alpine sector includes a rela tively huge variety of vegetation, animals, fungi and microbes that are specifi cally tailored to chilly environments. This region contributes essentially to the planet's biodiversity and gives many assets for mountain residing in addition to lowland humans. besides the fact that, speedy and mostly man-made alterations are affecting mountain ecosystems, reminiscent of soil erosion, losses of habitat and genetic variety, and weather swap, all of that have to be addressed. As said within the ecu group Biodiversity technique, "the worldwide scale of biodiversity relief or losses and the interdependence of other species and ecosystems throughout nationwide borders calls for concerted overseas action". handling biodiversity in a rational and sustainable means wishes simple wisdom on its qualitative and quantitative points at neighborhood, nearby and worldwide scales. this can be really real for mountains, that are allotted through the international and are certainly scorching spots of biodiversity in absolute phrases in addition to relative to the encircling lowlands.
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Additional info for Alpine Biodiversity in Europe
The latitudinal thermal gradients were smaller than expected. One explanation is the greater day lengths at high latitudes which allow longer positive soil heat flux and reduce nighttime cooling. Longer day length appears to compensate for reduced solar inclination. Locally occurring plants have evolved an adaptation to a 24-h photoperiod in the summer, as was shown by a continent-wide transplant experiment (Prock and Korner 1996). Mid-latitude (47°N) alpine plants thrived in the north; however, plants from high latitudes (68°N) performed badly in the Alps, presumably because of the short day length.
Arct Alp Res 2:63-73 Nakhutsrishvili G, Ozenda P (1998) Aspects geobotaniques de la haute montagne dans Ie Caucase essai de comparaison avec les Alpes. Ecologie 29: 139-144 Ozenda P (1985) La vegetation de la Chaine Alpine. Masson, Paris Ozenda P (1994) Vegetation du continent europeen. Delachaux et Niestle, Lausanne Reisigl H, Keller R (1987) Alpenpflanzen im Lebensraum. Alpine Rasen, Schutt- und Felsvegetation. G Fischer, Stuttgart Rivas-Martinez S (1995) Classification bioclimatica de la terra.
1999). The geology of the Scandes is variable and includes Precambrian, igneous, schistose metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The latter, containing high concentrations of calcium and magnesium carbonate, are of great botanical importance. The upper elevation of the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline is at ca. l. in the mountains of SE Norway, descending almost to sea level in the coastal mountains of northern Norway (Aas and Faarlund 2001). A recent overview of the ecological conditions in the Scandes can be found in Vaisanen (1998), Sonesson and Molau (1998) and Moen (1999).
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