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By Charlene Rivera

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Nonspecific pronominal reference NON PROFICIENT: Inappropriate and/or Incomprehensible Very long pauses or no response to elicitations Uses language of the elicitation Elliptical responses except appropriate code­ syntactically incomplete/not switching matched Responses semantically inappropriate Answers syntactically and semantically complement questions Answers syntactically/semantically related but not precisely matched to questions Responses cannot be clarified by repeated examiner probes Prosodic cues given Vocabulary lacking Responds to most/all elicitations with ''I don't know".

And then he went inside the cup, this is a cup, and then he was sad, and she was mad, and he was mad, then he came out, and then he got mad, he wanted to drink it. It is interesting, in this last example, that the character's responses are given, but the event to which they are responding is not in fact mentioned.  This is not to say that these judgments were either valid or invalid, but only to point out that they were necessarily relative.  Thus, a child who uses a somewhat montonous rising tone at the end of each clause, as in one of the examples given earlier, is not necessarily incapable of other kinds of prosodic modulation in a task of this kind, but may well be interpreting the task as a test of his or her ability to identify and describe what he or she sees in each picture as the page is turned.

Grades 2 to 5, and the most proficient younger students could "talk to topics" using elaborated discourse when this was elicited by the examiner.  show or movie.  Because of this, the researchers recommend that examiners use questions and other utterances such as comments on the topic, that are situated in the ongoing conversational discourse (Cook­Gumperz, 1977), rather than follow a standard pattern of questions in eliciting language from linguistic minority students for assessment purposes.

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