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By Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel

An creation to good judgment and medical technique is a faculty point primer on good judgment. This e-book used to be commonly utilized by students in particular these learning economics as an creation to logical concept in coaching for highbrow discourse. Ludwig von Mises used to be identified to assert that each one scholars of economics should still learn this ebook as a primary step of their education as economists.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method

Sample text

This is called the objective in­ tension or comprehension. Thus, if the conventional intension of “Euclidean triangle” is “a plane figure bounded by three straight lines,” a part of the objective intension is: “a plane figure with three angles, a plane figure whose angle sum is two right angles,” and so on. It is the conventional intension of a term which is logically im­ portant. The denotation of a term clearly depends upon its con­ notation. Whether we may apply the word “ellipse” to some geometric figure is determined by the attributes included in the connotation of the term.

We are not raising questions of physical existence, but of the existence of individuals within a uni­ verse of discourse controlled by certain assumptions, such as the statements of Homer or Shakespeare. An individual who may thus be said to “exist" in one universe of discourse may not have an existence in another. The proposition Samson is a pure myth denies existence to Samson in the universe of authentic history, but obviously not in the field of biblical mythology. When, therefore, it is said in formal logic that universal proposi­ tions do not imply, while particulars do imply, the existence of in­ stances, the reader may find it helpful to interpret this (in part at least) on the basis of the different function each type of proposi­ tion plays in scientific inquiry.

Since a conjunc­ tive asserts that both its conjuncts are true, its denial, which is a disjunctive proposition, asserts that at least one of the disjuncts is false.

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