By Marcel Pelgrom
This textbook is suitable to be used in graduate-level curricula in analog to electronic conversion, in addition to for working towards engineers wanting a state of the art reference on info converters. It discusses quite a few analog-to-digital conversion ideas, together with sampling, quantization, reference iteration, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This publication offers an outline of the state of the art during this box and makes a speciality of problems with optimizing accuracy and pace, whereas lowering the facility point.
This new, moment variation emphasizes novel calibration innovations, the categorical necessities of latest platforms, the results of 22-nm know-how and the necessity for a extra statistical method of accuracy. Pedagogical improvements to this variation contain greater than two times the routines on hand within the first version, solved examples to introduce all key, new recommendations and warnings, comments and tricks, from a practitioner’s point of view, at any place applicable. massive historical past details and functional counsel, from designing a PCB, to lay-out features, to trade-offs on process point, supplement the dialogue of uncomplicated rules, making this ebook a worthwhile reference for the skilled engineer.
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Extra resources for Analog-to-Digital Conversion
2 Resistivity 39 argument to a lower boundary 30 years still means that 50% of the energy is of direct relevance to the user. A form of noise common in tubes and in semiconductor devices with currents that are so low that the transition of individual electrons play a role is shot noise. 33) inoise = 2qIbias [A Hz]. , leakage currents in MOS gates. “White noise” has a flat frequency spectrum; the noise density is constant for every frequency. ” The term “white noise” does not indicate what the amplitude distribution of the noise is.
A 1 kΩ resistor will give an effective noise √ voltage density of 4 nV Hz at room temperature and 1 MΩ results in 126 nV Hz. In an audio bandwidth (20 Hz– 20 kHz) the total rms noise voltage over 1 MΩ would sum up to 18 μV. Thermal noise is modeled by a voltage source in series or a current source in parallel to the resistor (Fig. 18). These two models are equivalent following the Norton theorem: vnoise,rms = inoise,rms = √ 4kT RBW [V] 4kT BW/R [A]. 31) 38 2 Components and Definitions Fig. 18 Equivalence of noise voltage and noise current “1/ f ” noise is also called “flicker noise” or “pink noise” and appears in many forms in nature ranging from semiconductor physics to the flooding of the river Nile.
Thermal capacitance and thermal resistance form a thermal time constant, similar to an electrical time constant. In integrated circuit manufacturing, this thermal time constant may be as low as several microseconds. This value implies that the temperature variation can follow signals in the audio frequency range. As the temperature rise and fall modulates the resistivity itself, this effect may result in distortion. 9. 8 W is mounted in a package with a thermal resistance of Kpa = 40 K/W between junction and the PCB.
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