Download Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry, Pulping, and by E. Sjöström (auth.), Prof. Dr. Eero Sjöström, Prof. Dr. PDF

By E. Sjöström (auth.), Prof. Dr. Eero Sjöström, Prof. Dr. Raimo Alén (eds.)

In its broadest feel, and in accordance with the conventional perception, wooden chemistry is a entire self-discipline, starting from basic stories to sensible functions. The manifold elements, situated in several morphological areas within the wooden, ends up in an severe complexity of wooden chemistry. Ever extra subtle endeavors desiring primary reports and complicated analytical equipment are important with a view to delve deeper into quite a few difficulties in pulping and papermaking. steadily, new, greater ana­ lytical tools, initially constructed for examine reasons, are at the moment changing the various outdated "routine" equipment in functional purposes. as a result expanse of the topic, an try to write a ebook of this measurement approximately analytical tools turns out, might be, too bold. in fact, a complete e-book sequence of a number of volumes will be essential to hide this subject thoroughly. despite the fact that, there's surely a necessity for a extra condensed presentation which doesn't pass into experimental info, yet is restricted to the fundamental rules of the analytical equipment and illustrates their applica­ tions. The emphasis is on extra complex and capability equipment, and partic­ ularly on these in keeping with varieties of spectroscopy and chromatography.

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Extra info for Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry, Pulping, and Papermaking

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In the case of softwoods, preparation of holocellulose is necessary before extraction of hemicelluloses. An exception is, of course, arabinogalactan in larches, which is readily extractable with water. Pectins and/or pectic acids are located in the M + P layers. It is generally believed that they exist in the middle lamella as calcium salts and in the Carbohydrates 43 primary wall as methyl esters. , sodium hexametaphosphate, decompose the tightly coordinated gels and enable extraction of pectins.

Depending on the sample, glycosidic bonds are cleaved by hydrolysis or methanolysis (Wayman 1986; Fan et al. 1987; Biermann 1989b; De Ruiter et al. 1992; Henrissat 1994). Cellulose-containing samples are hydrolyzed with strong mineral acids or trifluoroacetic acid, which are able to destroy the crystalline structure of cellulose. In comparision with acid hydrolysis, methanolysis is fast but can only be applied for quantification of noncrystalline samples. These samples can also be hydrolyzed with enzyme mixtures (Buchert et al.

Even if the material from the primary wall can be recognized from its lack of birefringence, it is difficult to distinguish the material from the different layers of the secondary wall. Scanning electron microscopy of the peeled fibers can give an idea of how the peeling proceeds. 5%) can be used for removal of only residues from the middle lamella and primary wall of the fiber surface (Heijnesson et al. 1995). Finally, it should be mentioned that another, and a quite different type of technique compared with the previous one, has been suggested, according to which the pulp fibers are first acetylated under nonswelling conditions so that only the periphery of the fibers reacts.

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